The large scale publicly funded system of postsecondary education in Ontario developed in the 1960s has been largely successful in fulfilling important societal needs in the areas of education, human resource development, and research. Existing approaches, however, are unlikely to be sufficient to address the challenges of the coming decade. Academic Transformation: The Forces Reshaping Higher Education in Ontario examines the developments that are re-shaping the province's post-secondary system, including higher enrollment, further development of a knowledge-based economy, increased demands for research focused on competitiveness and productivity, and Ontario's transition to a multicultural, internationally connected, urban, and aged society. Universities and colleges are also adjusting to internal changes in the composition of the student body and staff, faculty work profiles, and funding arrangements. The authors consider possible changes in the system's structure, policy, and governance that may be helpful in dealing with the anticipated changes in societal needs, and expectations related to post-secondary education.